Define Nationalization in Economics
Nationalization in Economics
The government headed by Z.A. Bhutto privatized all industrial units and banks. The consumer goods industries, steel industries, cement industries automobile industries and all banks ere taken over by the government. Banks are also nationalized with the effect form July 1, 1974 under Nationalization of bank act 1974.
Its means taking over the management and control of organization owned by private individuals, called nationalization.
Advantages of Nationalization
1. Fair distribution of credit
Before nationalization the directors of banks were used to avail big loans for the promotion of their business and industries. The nationalization of banks remove that wrong practice and made the distributed of credit fair among all indiscriminately. The small businessmen, small industrialist and small farmer could avail for their respective concern.
2. Price stability
Another advantage of nationalization was that the central bank with the help of nationalized bans could minimize the fluctuations in economies activities. It would discourage the speculation, hoarding and other anti-social activities. That would stabilize the prices.
3. Financing of agriculture
Agricultural sector totally ignored before nationalization of banks, due to uncertainty of production and income which may lead to default. After it govt. provided lib ral loans to farmers. That caused increase in production and agriculture income to the farmer.
4. Service motive
Nationalization was advocated on another ground that nationalized institutions would provide better services to the customers. The commercial approach was replaced by the spirit of service to people.
5. No concentration of bank credit
Before nationatization there was concentration of bank credit in few hands. Business and industrial monopolies were formed. Nationalization helped in fair distribution of credit and thus eliminated the chances of monopoly formation.
6. Removing of wasteful competition
The burden of huge publicity expenses was shifted to consumers in the form of raising prices of the products. Nationalization was supposed to eliminate such competition thus providing ultimate relief to the customers.
7. Abolition of Malpractices
The banks and other private sector enterprises were nationalized to stop the malpractices like that of unlawful transactions, evasion of foreign exchange, evasion of taxes, heavy advances to directors etc.
8. Improvement in efficiency
The efficiency of nationalized institutions would improve when they would be operated in the interest on nation. Before nationalization, the making of more profit was the only criterion of efficiency.
9. Security in depositors
People showed more confidence in a state owned organization. Their deposits were safe in nationalized banks.
10. Economic growth
The rate of economic growth would increase be ause the nationalized bank would formulate the credit policy in accordance with the growing needs of diff r nt sectors.
Disadvantages of Nationalization
The malpractices in nationalized banks were going on. The favoritism still exit in banks in different forms.
2. Fall in service standard
The service standard had not improved. It had rather deteriorated.
3. No stability in price
Nationalization of banks had done nothing in the stabilization of prices bec use all the requisites of price stability could not be achieved with nationalization.
4. Low efficiency
The workers are appointed on the basis of their political affiliation rather than their standard of education, capabilities and efficiency. The result was inefficient management and low efficiency was the job security in government service.
5. Immigration of skilled persons
The able bankers preferred foreign job where they given due regard in the form of high remunerating and other benefits.
6. Less chances of promotion
The chances of promotion in nationalized banks were less. Their promotion depended on the length of service, whereas private banks consider efficiency for promotion.
Note: When considering the issues of reforming the Russian system of higher professional education, it is necessary to find out both advantages and disadvantages of the main provisions of the Bologna Declaration. The positive aspects of the transformation of higher education, as envisaged by the Bologna process, include: focusing on problems of strengthening the positions of the national system of higher education in the world, development of the national education system by expanding access to the world educational market and, as a result, increasing its competitiveness, the creation of an educational structure compatible with the educational structures of European countries, more understandable for foreign citizens, increasing the financing of scientific research (as fulfilling the requirements of the Bologna Declaration), getting wider access to information, including about quality control systems of education to achieve high academic standards, strengthening of control over the quality of education, quality assurance, recognition of these guarantees at the world level, recognition of diplomas of higher education in the whole European region and, as a result, increase of competitiveness and mobility, expansion of opportunities for favorable employment of graduates of higher education institutions in the European (in perspective in the international) labor market. Greater freedom for the institution to form the structure and content of educational programs, and students – in the choice of disciplines for study, transition to a qualitatively new level of forms of training and methods for monitoring the level and quality of student preparation.