Discuss the Function of Commercial Bank
Function of Commercial Bank
“Banks are Financial Departmental stores”
Prof Kinley views:
“A bank is an institution which receives deposits and advances loans”
According to H.L.Hart
“A banker is one who, in, the ordinary course of his business, honours cheques drawn upon him by persons from or for whom he receives money or current account”.
According to Prof. Crowther
“A bank collects money form those who have it spare or who are saving it out of their incomes. It lends money to those who require it.”
According to Banking companies’ ordinance 1962
“Banker means a person transacting the business of accepting f r purpose of lending or investing of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise with draw able by cheque, draft, and order or otherwise.
Functions of commercial Banks Primary Functions
1. Accepting Deposits
Bank accept deposits form those who have extra money out of their income in their hands, but they can’t use it in a profitable way so banks give them opportunity to deposit their money and enjoy profit.
a. Current Account
In this account the depositor can deposit and withdraw money at any time. Normally traders, businessmen, are interested to open this account bank pays no interest on this accounts. A cheque book is given to the account holder to with draw his money.
b. Profit & Loss sharing OR saving account
This account is suitable for those people who have small level of savings. In this account a nominal interest is paid to customer cheque book is given to account holder.
c. Fixed OR term deposits account
In this account a specified amount is deposited in the bank for particular period of time. The longer the duration the higher would be the interest. In this account, a receipt is given to customer, called fixed deposit receipt (FDR).
2. Advance loans
The bank gives loans in order to earn profit. In this way it accepts deposits at low rate of interest and advances loan at high rate of interest. The difference becomes profits of the bank. Advances are given in the following types.
a. Over Draft
This is a shot period financing facility. In this facility the bank sanctions that the customer can withdraw his money over and above the balance lying in the bank. This facility is provid d to current account holders.
b. Discounting Bills of Exchange
Its mean, making payment before the maturity of the bill the payment made the bank before the date of maturity is the loan to the bill holder.
c. Cash credit
In this loan facility the bank sanctions a particular amount. The facility is provided against security.
d. Time Loans
Short term loan in which the time period is less than one year.
Medium term loan for period of 1 to 3 or 5 years
Long term loan for period of more than 5 years and the entire loan are given against proper security.
1. Transfer of money
The banks transfer money form place to place by means of draft collection of cheques telephonic transfer and direct debt. The banks purchase bills of exchange to help their customer for collection of money.
2. Issue of credit money
The banks issue various types of near money the cheques bank draft credit car, are main instrument which is valid as medium of exchange to settle their obligations.
3. Investment of funds
The banks can invest funds in stocks shares and bounds. As per law commercial banks at least 25% of their deposits in securities.
4. Financing foreign trade
The bank performs duty of financing foreign trade. The respites and payment on accounts of exp rts and imports is possible through bank.
5. Foreign exchange dealing
The bank deal in foreign exchange they buy and sell currencies of other countries. The commercial banks are dealer of foreign exchange market.
6. Status report
The commercial bank act as r f ree for supply of information about its customer, related to financial position of party concerned.
1. Collection of cheque
A commercial bank acts as agent to the customer to collect nd m ke payment on the cheques. The cheques may be local or out station.
2. Collection of income
Banks collect pension, dividend, rent and interest of their customers. A credit voucher is sent to customer for information.
3. Payment of expenses
The bank makes payment of insurance premium trade subscription, school fee and similar other expenses.
4. Act as trustee
The bank can act as trust to mange trust property as per will of property owner. The order of court is obtained to act as trustee. (Takes care affairs of its client)
5. Tax return
The bank act as agents of customers, those are bound to pay tax to government.
6. Hajj application
The bank collects Hajj application from general public on behalf of government.
7. Safe custody
The bank accepts valuables and other papers for safe keeping. A nominal fee is charged from customer.
8. Zakat deduction
The bank automatically deduct Zakat on first Ramzan every year from his customer accounts
1. Letter of credit
Commercial banks issue letter of credit in order to provide financial assistance to the customers dealing in foreign trade.
The banks collect and supply trade information to businessman the issue bulletins that provide update information abut companies working abroad.
3. Govt loans
The banks participate in debt management for government. The bank can buy bonds, and others securities offered by central bank
4. Lockers facility
Banks provide lockers facility to general public gold ornaments, documents and their valuables can be placed in lockers.
5. Share application
Bank accepts applications for subscription of shares on Behalf Company the price of shares is collected with application money.
6. Accepting bills of exchange
Banks accept bills of exchange on behalf of customers to meet their financial needs.
Commercial banks play a vital role in promotion economic development by mobilizing the financial resources of the country. As well as through commercial banks provided multiple services to their customers for the purpose of increasing their business and becoming reliable entity for their customers.
Note: This can be most clearly seen in the same medical field. In medical colleges, students work out to automatism the skills of introducing medicines into a vein. In medical universities this is taught more theoretically. But when the nurse can’t get into the vein of the patient, the doctor must do it. Nonsense? If a person first graduated from a medical college, and afterwards – a medical college, then he has practical and theoretical skills. This is a vivid example, but such situations are found in any professional areas. College and university allow you to consistently get acquainted with all the nuances of the profession. The specialist knows what is happening at each level: who, what, and why is engaged in a particular case. This greatly facilitates the beginning of working life – a young specialist is confident in his knowledge and skills. And confidence ensures successful promotion on the career ladder. Receiving higher education after college is a good option for those who want to master the profession in perfection. However, there are also difficulties in this process: classmates in the university are younger, it is more difficult to establish contact with them; During the training in the college, theoretical knowledge is forgotten for some basic subjects that are studied in depth at the first courses of the university (chemistry, physics, mathematics, history, etc.), which requires their further study.