What is Bioenergetics in Biology
Bioenergetics in Biology
Definition of Bioenergetics
The capturing and conversion of energy from one form to another in the living system and its utilization in metabolic activities is called Bioenergetics. Bio-energetics is the quantitative study of energy relationships and conversion into biological system. Biological energy transformation always obey the laws of thernodynamic.
Role of ATP As Energy Currency
ATP is adenosine triphosphate. Adenosine is made of adenosine and ribose sugar. Among the three phosphate groups two are energy rich Po4 bonds. So ATP is a high energy compound it gives its Po4 groups easily. When 1 ATP is converted into ADP, 7.3 K cal/mole or 31.81 KJ/mole energy is released. ATP -> ADP + Pi + Energy Living organisms use organic food for generation of energy. These food usually contain carbohydrates which degrade to produce 002, H20 and energy. Which is usually in the form of ATPs. ATP plays role in several endergonic and exergonic reactions.
Those chemical reactions which accompanied by the absorption of the energy are known as endergonic reactions. The products have a higher free energy than reactants.
Examples of endergonic reaction in human are
- Synthesis of proteins
- Synthesis of lipids
- Synthesis of cholestrol
- Synthesis of glycogen
Those reactions which complete along with the liberation of free energy are known as Exergonic reaction. The products have a lower free energy than the reactants.
An aerobic glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, oxidative phosphoylation.
Substances in plants that absorb the visible light are called Pigments. Different pigments absorb light of different wavelength. They are involved in the conversion of light energy to chemical energy. Important plant pigments are chlorophyls, carotenoids, phycobilin, xanthophylls, phaelophytin.
Each photosystem is a highly organized unit consisting of chlorophyll accessory pigment molecules and electron carrier molecules present on the thylakoids of chloroplast. Each thylakoid contains many units of two photosystems the photosystem land photosystem II. So chloroplast contains thousands of photosystem.
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